Monday, November 24, 2014

Are You Concerned with Bone Loss?

Are You Concerned with Bone Loss?

15764185_sBone loss is probably one of the most feared and misunderstood aspects in health care. Most think calcium is the main focus when it comes to bone loss. Healthcare authorities recommend taking calcium (usually from a cheap, poorly absorbable source) and everything will be okay. In doing so, the cause of bone loss is overlooked and the effects accepted as part of the “normal” aging process. But there is actually much more to maintaining healthy bones than calcium, weight-training, or bone drugs. And one connection that is often overlooked is reducing inflammation.
It is important to understand that the way the body works does not change to suit a current philosophy of a diseases cause and effect. Neurology, physiology and anatomy in the human body do not change. They have meaning and cannot be ignored or changed to suit a particular philosophy. By understanding the cause, you will understand the effect. Each rationalizes into a procedure that we hope will eliminate the cause of disease and alters the effect back to normal health.
When it comes to bone health, a body suffering from chronic inflammation can send messages that disrupt the natural remodeling process that our bones undergo on a regular basis. And for many, the unfortunate result after years of this simmering fire is brittle, osteoporotic bone.
The Value of Continual Remodeling of Bone
Inflammatory bone erosionThe continual deposition and absorption of bone has a number of physiologically important functions.
  1. Bone ordinarily adjusts its strength to the degree of bone stress. (Wolff’s Law) Bone thickens when subjected to heavy loads. (exercise)
  2. The shape of the bone can be rearranged for proper support of mechanical forces by deposition and absorption of bone in accordance to stress places upon the bone. (exercise vs. no exercise/sedentary lifestyle) (spinal curvatures and breaks)
  3. Old bone becomes relatively weak and brittle; new bone is needed as the old bone degenerates. Bone is alive and needs to be replaced just as other tissues of the body do. It takes about two years for bone to be 100% replaced.
Equilibrium between Bone Formation and Loss.
Osteoclasts and osteoblasts are instrumental in controlling the amount of bone tissue:
  • osteoblasts form bone.
  • osteoclasts reabsorb bone.
Osteoblasts are primarily responsible for turning osteoclast production and activity on and off. They do this via a system of signaling proteins called cytokines, i.e. c-Fos. The cytokine messengers in the inflammation–bone dynamic are essentially activators of osteoclasts, causing increased bone loss. When ongoing inflammation is present, more osteoclasts are generated and stay active longer than they should, disrupting the natural balance.
Think of osteoclasts as the building inspector / demolition crew. They constantly inspect the bone for signs of aging. When they find old bone, they tear it out so the remodeling crew (osteoblasts) can remodel the bone. Remodeling crews do not start remodeling until the demolition has been completed.

Bone is continually being formed by osteoblasts where osteoclasts have been active, and it is continually being absorbed where osteoclasts are finding old bone needing to be replaced.  A small amount of osteoblastic activity occurs continually in all living bone (approximately 4 percent) so that at least some new bone is being formed constantly. Bone is being continually absorbed by osteoclasts (normally less than one percent in all living bone) at any given time.
Normally, except in growing bones (children), the rates of bone deposition and absorption are equal to each other, so the total mass of bone remains constant. Usually osteoclasts exist in small but concentrated masses; and once a mass of osteoclasts begins to develop, it usually eats away at the bone for about 3 weeks, eating out a tunnel. At the end of this time the osteoclasts disappear, and the tunnel is invaded by osteoblasts and new bone begins to develop. Bone deposition continues for several months. Bone loss medications such as “BONIVA are a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate that inhibits osteoclast-mediated bone resorption” state this on their websites.
Now apply number three above to the statement and ask yourself what would happen if the osteoclasts bone inspector/demolition crew were made to stop their work? Well for one thing, calcium loss would stop. Hurrah!! Bone loss has stopped. WooHoo!! Does the bone stop aging? No, it continues to age and deteriorate. When the osteoblast remodeling crew finishes their current projects, they see no active tunnels so they stop working. Will this make the bone stronger, or with age, will the bone become weaker? Bone loss and aging still occurs even with these medications.
How does inflammation affect my bones?
When it comes to strong bones, our bodies rely on a dynamic coupling between the cells that break down old bone and those that build new bone. If the immune system is persistently activated, this process becomes uncoupled and the osteoclasts, the cells that break down bones, begin to run amok. Just as the inflammatory process is essential for healing the body, osteoclasts are essential for healthy bone turnover. But when there is imbalanced activity between osteoclasts and osteoblasts, the cells that build up bone, we begin to see more bone breakdown than building.
Cortisol – the stress hormone, is the leading contributor to bone loss. Elevated cortisol has a negative impact on bone metabolism. It lowers bone formation thus favoring development of osteoporosis in the long term. Know any one immune from stress? If you are constantly under stress, your cortisol level can remain elevated over long periods of time. Research now correlates chronically elevated levels of cortisol with blood sugar problems, fat accumulation, compromised immune function, exhaustion, bone loss, and even heart disease.
Cortisol also thins the lining of the stomach, decreasing the production of stomach acid. Did you know stomach acid is required to transport calcium into your body? This is why it is recommended to take a calcium supplement with some form of acid, i.e. calcium citrate. Apply a little common sense to this situation when your doctor tells you to take Tums antacids (calcium carbonate) for your calcium supplement, which further lowers stomach acid and makes less calcium available.
In a study appearing online in the February 2006 issue of the Journal of Clinical Investigation, Kyoji Ikeda and colleagues from the National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology in Japan show that oral vitamin D treatment inhibits the production of the protein c-Fos.  As c-Fos plays a key role in the development of osteoclasts, which are the specialized cells responsible for bone breakdown and resorption, the authors also show that the vitamin D–mediated inhibition of c-Fos prevented bone loss through a suppression of osteoclast development.
Vitamin D also reduces the production of proinflammatory cytokines. These findings clarify how vitamin D helps limit bone resorption in conditions such as osteoporosis, and suggest that high dose oral Vitamin D is more effective than calcium supplements.  However, many in the healthcare community continue to say that Vitamin D only helps by supporting calcium absorption without looking at the impact elevated cortisol and inflammation have on calcium metabolism.
Many in the alternative healthcare community promote liver / gallbladder flushes and cleanses. They understand that poor liver function will impact your health. I find it ironic that at the same time recommend Vitamin D supplements that must pass through the liver to be emulsified prior to use. Taking a Vitamin D supplement may add more distress to the liver/gallbladder system by forcing it to work harder.  I recommend using a pre-emulsified Vitamin D available at Wellness Alternatives to by-pass the sluggish liver/gallbladder.
Long term, which do you think would be more effective in preventing bone loss: calcium supplements and/or a Boniva-type medication that only ineffectively addresses one area of concern, or treating the underlying cause that predisposes many of us to bone loss? Do what you can to reduce your stress levels. How often to you exercise? We can assist you with your bone loss concerns.  



5595905_sBreast-feeding is one of the most important gifts a mother can give her child. The nutritional aspect of breast-feeding speaks for itself, not only giving the child every nutritional element they need but providing immunologic protection from a host of bacteria and viruses. Breastfeeding is as important for the development of the cranium and facial bones as exercise is to women to prevent bone loss. At the time of birth there are fourteen underdeveloped bones in the infants cranium. These must be stimulated to grow for proper feeding, digestion and speech. 
Movement stimulates bone growth.
Breast fed versus bottle fed babies is discussed below. To better appreciate the importance of breast-feeding from a structural / functional standpoint, an understanding of the dynamics within the head would be beneficial.
Bone is alive and is continuously refabricated throughout life. Read more. Every change in the form and the function of a bone or in the function of the bone alone, leads to changes in its internal architecture and in its external form.
“Wolff’s law” that states that bone is fabricated and refabricated in response to the mechanical stresses it experiences so as to produce a “minimal-weight” structure that is ‘adapted’ to stresses applied to it.
What role does breastfeeding play in the development of the bones of the cranium?
Breast Feeding also fulfills a structural and functional need as well. Structurally breast feeding stimulates the facial bone growth centers. Functionally breast feeding stimulates the cerebrospinal fluid pumping mechanism.
cranium fetalThere are twenty-two bones of the cranium. These bones are separated by a fibrous membrane internally known as the dura mater (covers the brain and separates the lobes of the brain inside the cranial vault). This membrane continues between the twenty-two bones separating them through out life becoming the periosteum [outer covering of the cranial bone]. These membranous gaps are better known as the fontanels. The smaller fontanels usually close up within two to three months. The larger anterior fontanel may remain open until eighteen to twenty-four months. Later, as adults; these gaps between the bones become the cranial sutures allowing motion to occur between the bones. Yes, cranial bones should have a synchronized movement but are also able to flex and bend to facilitate this movement.


At birth, the cranial portion of the skull is relatively large; approximately 25 % of its adult size and reaches about 75% of its adult size by the time the child is one year old. The facial portion is smaller compared to the cranial part. This is due to the under-development of the facial bones and teeth. The comparatively large cranial part of the skull accommodates the relatively large brain that develops first in the embryo. Prior to birth there is no need for any development of the facial bones since it would hinder movement down the birth canal.
At this point the individual bones are easily identifiable because ossification is still incomplete, especially along the margins. At this stage the bones are thin, consisting of a single pliable layer without a spongy middle. Bone is developed from two types of ossification centers — intramembranous and intracartilaginous. lntramembranous bones perform as membrane throughout life forming the bones of the cranium. Intracartilaginous bones perform as hard bone throughout life forming the base of the cranium. Cranial bones are developed from 55 -69 ossification centers depending on which author you read. There are 22 bones of the skull, 8 – make up the cranium, 14 – make up the face. The more functionally complex the nature of the bone the more ossification centers present, i.e. sphenoid that is the keystone of the cranial vault has 14 centers while the parietal has only one per side.
The cranium also serves to protect the brain. The cranial bones being membranous in nature will give rather than break when impacted. The cranial vault forms from membranous bone that allow movement for the pumping of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The floor or base of the skull is formed from cartilage to protect the sensitive nerves, arteries and veins running to and from the brain.

Embryologic Cranial Vertebral Segments

The intracartilaginous bones of the base of the cranium form five additional vertebral segments during embryologic development. As with the vertebrae of the spine, a cranial nerves exit between each segment. The cranial nerves are an important collection of nerves, all of which travel directly to the brain rather than through the spinal cord, like most other nerves. The cranial nerves have several functions critical for day-to-day life, so they become very important to physicians, as well as patients impacted by disorders of cranial nerve function. Cranial nerves allow the Abdominal brain of the Autonomic Nervous System to communicate with the Cranial brain.

10379925_sThe Importance of CSF

The pumping of CSF begins around 21 days after conception. The heart begins pumping around day 40. Some authorities consider Cerebrospinal Fluid to be of more important than blood. Some consider CSF – the blood of the nervous system while others view CSF as the physical manifestation of Chi (the vital life force). The CSF supports and nourishes the brain and the entire nervous system down to the fingertips.
The Caduceus: The ball represents the brain, the spinal cord is the staff. The ribbon is CSF. MRI doppler studies have confirmed CSF flows from the brain, down the spinal cord, and spirals back up to the brain
The pumping of the CSF is a complex mechanism. This involves the reciprocal tension membranes (dura mater) separating the lobes of the brain, the membranes of the cranial vault and sutures, and covering the spinal cord while providing feedback from the nervous system in the sutures. The CSF is pumped around the brain and down the spinal cord. Dural ports located at each spinal vertebral level serve to pump CSF down the nerve providing nutrition and energy for proper nerve function. The dural ports which look like nipples give a squirt of CSF down the nerve root during the flexion and extension of the dura mater during the Primary Respiratory Mechanism.
Using a computer analogy it would go like this:
  • Brain = computer hardware
  • NEI Supersystem = computer software receiving input from peripheral systems.
  • Cerebrospinal fluid = “cooling” and power system
  • Dura mater = hardware frame work
  • Cranium = hard case protection
  • Concussions/birth trauma damages hard case altering framework altering cooling power system resulting in loss of cooling and power to hardware altering software performance.
  • Autoimmune conditions start as a software problem.
  • Brain bleeds from birth or strokes damage the hardware causing software problems.

Breast Feeding vs. Bottle Feeding

Breast-feeding requires lip and biting activity from the infant to grasp and hold the nipple between the tongue and palate. The nipple used for bottle feeding pushes the lips apart and there is no need to grasp and hold the artificial nipple with the tongue. This system relies primarily on gravity and does not require the normal suckling motion of breast-feeding.
When the infant grasps the mother’s nipple with their tongue against their palate, it causes movement of the cranial bones. The micromotion from the infant suckling causes stimulation to the growth centers of the facial bones to grow and develop normally. Mothers will use a variety of positions to nurse their child using both breasts. This will provide stimulation to growth centers on both sides of the infants face. The sucking motion also helps to facilitate the pumping of CSF. This pumping action is facilitated through of series of lever actions within the cranium. This facilitates the flow of CSF as well as the pituitary hormones, i.e. growth hormone.
Bottle feeding does not require any grasping with the tongue. Without the tongue being forced up into the palate, there is very limited stimulation of the facial growth centers. This lack of stimulation fails to stimulate the facial bone growth centers causing numerous problems, i.e. crowding of the teeth.
The biggest problem is the child will usually be held in the same feeding position. A right handed parent will hold the baby in the left arm while holding the bottle in the right hand. This angles the bottle nipple towards the left side of the infants mouth stimulating bone growth centers on the left side, leaving the right side under stimulated. This creates an unbalanced bite, which is important for balance and the righting mechanism. Dental intervention then ensues with the removal of the premolars, wisdom teeth and orthodontics to force symmetry for aesthetic purposes and to restore proper bite. 
Mandible developmentOne of the easiest places to see the difference between breast and bottle fed children is Kindergarten pictures. It is quite obvious to see the full symmetrical facial features of the breastfed children while standing next to them is the underdeveloped mouth of the bottle fed children. The mouth and jaw are out of proportion to the face and head.

Other Benefits As Wellhumunculus

In a newborn, the Eustachian tube is horizontal and may not drain well. When infants are bottle fed, fluid may accumulate providing a fertile ground for bacteria. The suction created with breastfeeding helps to clear the Eustachian tube and inner ears of any fluid build-up. This prevents the build-up of a fertile breeding ground for bacteria, thus preventing ear infections. This suctions also stimulates the pumping of the lymphatic system. This system serves as a transport mechanism for the white blood cells necessary for an immune response.
This pumping mechanism does not seem to start as efficiently in children of cesarean birth. There is a higher incidence of ear infections in cesarean babies than in vaginal birth babies. Breastfeeding would help to start the pumping mechanism.

Birth Trauma

Distortions in the cranium due to birth trauma from the use of forceps, suction, difficult or forced labor and cesarean delivery may cause problems with emotions, structure, and function, etc. As you can see in the diagram above, certain areas of the brain control the function of different parts of the body. Distortions pressing into or pulling away from these areas affect the body – good or bad. i. e., A five year old boy with a forceps caused fracture of the occiput and frontal bone causing an expansion of the area controlling speech. By age two was speaking in complete sentences but was suffering from emotional problems due to trauma from the frontal bone fracture and delayed motor skills. The emotional area of the brain is under the frontal bone. The motor skills portion of the brain lies under the occiput.
Cranial bably
Newborn baby being checked for birth trauma.
Orthodox medical treatment of Birth Trauma distortions may include the following procedures:
1. Eating soft food a carbohydrate rich diet (usually high in gluten) which trains the child not to chew. This fails to stimulate cranial bone growth while eating. This trains the child to gulp food which leads to choking which is the reason for the soft food recommendation by the medical community.
2. Doing nothing at all. Everything appears normal as in the case of the five year old above. Treating symptoms as they appear later in life.
3. Dental work due to crowding of the teeth, i.e. extraction, braces, etc. This work must be done to save the teeth.
4. Making an incision in the cranium from ear to ear to allow the cranium to expand.
5. Placing the child into a molding helmet forcing the cranium to grow into a normal shape.
6. Lobectomy — Removal of a section of the brain.
Alternative Treatment of the Birth Trauma distortion includes:
1. Sacro Occipital Technique – Craniopathy - Gentle manipulation and molding of the cranium restores symmetry and function to the cranium. The sooner this is done, the easier it is. Many of my patients stop by on the way home from the hospital. Most of the time it is harder on the parents than the child. See image above and below. This may take several visits. The birth trauma distortion does not attain any permanency until around the age of seven. After the permanent teeth start pushing in, correction can take longer and may require chirodontics.
2. Breastfeeding — stimulation of growth centers and cranial motion. This simulates proper growth of teeth and facial bones.
3. Healthy Natural food — In addition to eating a gluten free, casein free, lectin free seasonal paleo diet, while avoiding unprocessed foods, etc. Chewing stimulates growth centers while producing digestive chemistry for better assimilation of nutrition.
4. Parents taking responsibility for the health of their family is the most important aspect of all.
Cranial baby

Nutritional Aspects of Breastfeeding

The initial urge to suck in a new born has a twofold effect. One is to stimulate milk production in the mother. The other is that the colostrum acts as a laxative to help eliminate meconium.
Breast milk provides protective antibodies to the newbom before their own immune system begins to work at around two years of age. Mother’s milk provides the baby’s intestinal tract with friendly bacteria: lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. These organisms protect the newborn gastrointestinal tract. Breastfeeding is the second most important gift a mother can give to her child. The first being the gift of life. This act of love creates a bond that can last a lifetime for the entire family.

Friday, November 7, 2014

Make you think! Vaccine Ingredients...

The following paragraphs were written in response to an inquiry about vaccines ingredients. 
Dr Jon Wise

Someone just asked me about the dangers of a specific ingredient (a preservative) in the flu (fool) shot. But the truth is that ALL of the ingredients in the flu shot and every other vaccine are very dangerous. Her question reminded me of the following true story that happened about 15 years ago at our children's pediatrician's office. 

I once took a list of the ingredients in the DTaP vaccine (minus the virus components) to our pediatrician and told him a well-known and highly respected doctor had recommended all of them be taken in minute, repetitive doses as a way for both children and adults to actually stay healthy. I told him I wanted his opinion because it sounded crazy to me, as most of them were known poisons. He read the list and was absolutely horrified that a doctor would recommend even ONE of these toxic substances, let alone all of them, as ANY amount of them could do serious damage, especially if given repeatedly over time. He told me I should stay away from that doctor and maybe even report him to the medical board.

I then informed him that this would have to be our last visit to his office. He asked why. I told him I was just following the advice he had just given me. You see, HE was the well-known and highly respected doctor that had recommended them, as that list of ingredients was what was in each if the vaccines he told us our children needed. He just looked at me and walked out of the room. 

He came back into the room a few minutes later (I assume after checking the ingredients on the bottle of vaccine) and tried to tell me that the minute amounts in the vaccines wouldn't do us or our kids any harm, "And besides, the diseases they might contract are far worse than any damage the vaccines might do." I repeated his own words back to him - "I can't believe that a doctor would recommend even ONE of these toxic substances, let alone all of them, as ANY amount of them could do serious damage, especially if given repeatedly over time," and "You should report this guy to the medical board!"

He then told me he thought this was a cheap trick to make him look bad and embarrass him (even though it was done in private). I told him I was simply desperate to try to help him understand why we were choosing to not vaccinate our kids, and that up to that point, he wasn't interested in hearing.

That was our last visit to that pediatrician.

Dr Kevin Donka

Thursday, November 6, 2014

Vitamin D –- are you getting enough?

Vitamin D –- are you getting enough?

The current recommended daily intake for Vitamin D runs from 200-600 IU’s per day, depending on your age. In light of recent research, and with most people testing severely deficient in blood tests today, this level of supplementation seems to be inadequate.
Vitamin D concentration in the body is correlated with immune function (i.e. fighting off the flu and preventing cancer), and contributes in multiple ways to the optimal function of the human body because virtually every cell has a receptor for Vitamin D. This includes the cells of the pancreas which is where vitamin D has its impact on blood sugar.

Vitamin D2 vs. Vitamin D3

If you are like most North Americans, the form of Vitamin D you are most likely lacking, and with which you need to supplement is Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) – not Vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol). Vitamin D3 is synthesized in the skin from cholesterol in response to absorbing UVB rays. It gets converted in the liver, then is transported to the kidneys, and goes to the heart of every cell, the nucleus, and influences its physiology to take the healthy pathways by dictating genetic expression.

Most of us are lacking several thousand IU’s of Vitamin D3 per day because we spend our days indoors – and even in the summer, we move from an air-conditioned house, to an air-conditioned car, to an air-conditioned office building, to an air-conditioned bedroom for the night … Then we repeat the cycle the next day.

Blood Serum Levels 25 Hydroxy Vitamin D

The level of Vitamin D circulating in our system is directly proportionate to the amount of skin exposed to sunlight. According to Dr. Mayer Eistenstein, a medical doctor and lawyer from, and Dr. Joseph Mercola, an osteopathic physician from the world’s #1 natural health website, to have acceptable levels of 150-200nmol/L we need 10-15 minutes of mid-day sun with 40% body exposure, and for most of us this is not possible.

Vitamin D Supplementation

Traditionally, people have been taught to supplement with 1000-2000 IU of Vitamin D per day, to maintain levels above 50 nmol/L to prevent Rickets. The chart below, provided by, shows that levels should be greater than 150 nmol/L to lessen the likelihood of diseases related to Vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D testing often reveals that most people more accurately need to supplement with 5,000 for maintenance, or 10,000 IU per day until health levels are reached and verified by follow-up testing.

Please note, the reference numbers listed above use imperial units of measure, not metric units which are otherwise referenced in this article. Canadian (metric) reference ranges are listed in nmol/L. Please note for imperial vs. metric reference ranges that 1 ng/mL (U.S./imperial) = 2.5 nmol/L (CAN/metric)

According to, Metametrix Labs,, and emerging research in this field, the following concentrations of Vitamin D3 relate to your risk of various illnesses:

< 50       Deficiency, high risk of various conditions
50-80     Insufficiency, mild risk of various conditions
80-225   Sufficiency, possibly enough in certain individuals
150-225 Most optimal, preferred range, normal in sunny countries.
This range reduces severity of various conditions and possibly necessary for optimal health in certain individuals
> 250     Possibly unsafe levels
> 375     Toxic levels, impossible to achieve with sun alone

The above reference ranges are not based on guidelines set by governing bodies, but on clinical research in the natural health field. “Acceptable” ranges advocated by governing bodies may not meet the same standards as those endorsed by today’s leaders in natural health care.

How to Build a Strong Immune System

How to Build a Strong Immune System – and what to do when you’re under the weather

by. Dr. B.J. Hardick

The immune system is the body’s defense system designed to fight off bacterial infections, viral infections, the flu, cancer or anything else that may try to harm you.  Most of the time, the body’s immune system wins, but unfortunately that’s not always the case. Medical interventions, particularly antibiotics, originally designed to save lives when the body is in a crisis, are now being widely used as the “first line of defense” without letting the body do its work first. As a result, experts agree that we have caused microbes to rapidly evolve to the point where some are resistant to antibiotics altogether. The everyday use of antibacterial soaps and other external treatments to kill germs has also contributed to this dilemma. The natural approach is not to develop stronger medications that will only repeat the cycle, but to strengthen the body’s immune system to fight infection and reserve the use of medications for emergencies only.

Fortunately, there are several proven steps to strengthen your immune system naturally.

Vitamin D

If you aren’t getting at least 10-15 minutes of mid-day sun exposure per day, with 40 percent of your skin exposed, you are likely deficient in Vitamin D – a key player in your immune system! Emerging research is showing that one’s risk of developing (or dying from) colon, breast and prostate cancer, melanoma, inflammatory bowel disease, lupus, and multiple sclerosis (which all indicate abnormal immune function), is greatly reduced by maintaining adequate Vitamin D levels.

If you are taking a Vitamin D supplement, be sure it is Vitamin D3, the active form you need. Most experts now agree that the traditionally accepted standard of 200-600 IU’s per day is not sufficient, and that the average person needs closer 5000 IU’s per day for maintenance, but will benefit from 10000 to 20000 IU’s per day when they are sick. In the case of serious flu, some MD’s will recommend even higher doses for 2-3 days until the symptoms resolve.
Spinach is one of the best vegetables to consume every day, as it contains Vitamin K2, boron, and magnesium to increase the absorption and utilization of Vitamin D3.

Vitamin C

Long known to aid the body when fighting a cold, Vitamin C is a well-known supplement. Unfortunately Vitamin C cannot be made in the body, so we must acquire it through our diet. Oranges and citrus fruits are best known for being good sources of Vitamin C, but lower glycemic foods are a better option when consumed on a daily basis, as they contain less sugar and are less acidic. Raw red peppers and strawberries are incredible, low-sugar sources of Vitamin C.

While the recommended daily intake of Vitamin C is only 60-95 mg per day (enough to prevent scurvy), the Vitamin C Foundation is presently recommending 1000 mg of vitamin C, three times per day (3000 mg total), to enjoy optimal health.


Your body heals when it is at rest. Numerous studies have shown 7-9 hours of sleep per night is needed for the average person. Ultimately, listen to your body and get all the sleep your body requires.

Sugar (the enemy)

It has been known for decades that sugar is a major enemy of your body’s immune system.
Consider cancer, the ultimate immune system disorder: In 1931, German Professor Otto Warburg received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his studies showing that cancer cells and tumors generate energy by glycolysis, the non-oxidative breakdown of glucose in the absence of oxygen. Fundamentally, Dr. Warburg hypothesized that cancer cells use sugar as their main source of energy, in contrast to healthy cells which use oxygen.

When Insulin levels become high, in response to high blood sugar, the liver releases IGF-1 (Insulin-like growth factor), which causes the cells of the body to grow in the presence of food. Cancer cells have eight times the number of receptors of IGF-1 than do healthy cells of the body, and therefore utilize sugar as their primary fuel. Further, IGF-1 has an estrogen-like action, making it very dangerous in hormone-responsive cancers such as breast cancer. IGF-1 also promotes the formation of blood vessels in tumors, allowing cancers to grow and spread.

Not only does sugar feed cancerous cells, but it also impedes the function of the immune system, which would otherwise identify and destroy potentially mutated and harmful cells.
Dr. Warburg’s research has been backed up several times in recent years: A study reported in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute in 2004 showed that women who ate the highest glycemic (or sugary) foods were three times more likely to develop colon cancer. Researchers at Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah have discovered in 2009 that genetic regulation of tumor growth is indeed halted in the absence of glucose. In a nutshell, sugar feeds cancer and suppresses the immune system.

In the Maximized Living Core Nutrition Plan, simple sugars and refined grains are eliminated completely – however you can substitute with healthy alternatives such as stevia and whole grains, respectively. When you are run down, follow the guidelines of the Maximized Living Advanced Nutrition Plan, to eliminate not only simple sugar, but all foods which convert to sugar, until your health is restored.

Chiropractic Adjustments

Research has shown that chiropractic care boosts the immune system. Chiropractic adjustments relieve stress from the nerve system, which is a critical link and has governing role over the immune system.
Consider the following:
  • Spinal lesions, similar to vertebral subluxation complexes caused by misalignments, are associated with exaggerated sympathetic activity, which releases immune regulatory cells into the blood circulation and alters immune function. The nervous system has a direct effect on the immune system due to the nerve supply to the important immune system organs. (1, 2, 3)
  • White blood cells, which eat and destroy bad cells, are enhanced through chiropractic care. (4)
  • HIV positive patients adjusted over a 6-month period showed a 48% increase in CD4 cells, an important immune system component. (5)
  • The chief of cancer prevention at New York’s Preventative Medicine Institute found that people who received regular chiropractic care over a five-year period had a 200% greater immune competence than those who had not received chiropractic care. The chiropractic group showed a 400% greater immune competence than people with cancer and other serious diseases. (6)
Chiropractic care for maintenance of a strong immune system should be a standard regimen for everyone. Typically, patients on a maintenance schedule will be able to hold their chiropractic adjustments from 1-3 weeks, depending on stress levels. However, in times of immune system suppression, a patient can have their spine examined for misalignments several times per day to ensure their nerve systems are free of interference. Wellness chiropractors and Maximized Living doctors use several objective technologies to check for diminished nerve supply, the presence or absence of subluxations, and how well (and how long) their patients are holding their adjustments.

Specific supplementation

There are specific supplements that may support your system in times of severe immune system suppression. Some of these include oil of oregano, effective for viral infections, and probiotics to support your immune system when fighting off bacteria, while maintaining a proper intestinal flora of healthy bacteria you need.

The Chiropractic Perspective

Above all, remember that there is a big difference between being “sick” and being “under the weather.” By definition, “sick” means that your body isn’t working properly. The expression of symptoms does not necessarily mean your body is not doing what it needs to – particularly when those symptoms include vomiting, diarrhea, skin rashes or sweats to aid your body’s natural detoxification.

If your body is fighting off an infection, the intention of chiropractic care is to see that your body is working properly … the best it possibly can. Truly healthy people will get symptoms and will get “under the weather” from time to time, even if their bodies are working right.
Unlike allopathic medicine, this approach does not cover up the symptom, but instead addresses the true causes of the problem and supports your body’s natural mechanisms to heal on its own.

  1. Felton DL, Felton SY, Belonged DL, et al. "Noradrenergic sympathetic neural interactions with the immune system: structure and function." Immunol Rev. 1987 Dec;100:225-60.
  2. Korr IM: "Andrew Taylor Still memorial lecture: Research and Practice - a century later." J Am Osteopathy Assoc 1974 73:362.
  3. Murray DR, Irwin M, Reardon CA, et al. "Sympathetic and immune interactions during dynamic exercise. Mediation via a beta 2 - adrenergic-dependent mechanism." Circulation 1992 86(1): 203.
  4. Brennan P, Graham M, Triano J, Hondras M. "Enhanced phagocytic cell respiratory bursts induced by spinal manipulation: Potential Role of Substance P." J Manip Physiolog Ther 1991; (14)7:399-400.
  5. Selano JL, Hightower BC, Pfleger B, Feeley-Collins K, Grostic JD. "The Effects of Specific Upper Cervical Adjustments on the CD4 Counts of HIV Positive Patients." The Chiro Research Journal; 3(1); 1994.
  6. Pero R. "Medical Researcher Excited By CBSRF Project Results." The Chiropractic Journal, August 1989; 32.

Life, Death and spinal curvatures

Life, Death and spinal curvatures



You are born in a "C." Developing and curled up in the womb, your spine is simply C-shaped until you get out and start moving.
If you've got kids, you know that once the baby is released into the world, they start to hold their head up. While doing so, they're supposed to be taking the top of the C (the neck) and creating a reverse C or what is called the cervical "lordosis." Once that reverse C is formed, they get stronger and begin crawling.
When crawling, the bottom of the C (the low back) is reversed, like in the neck, and they get what is called the lumbar "lordosis." The middle of the C (mid-back) stays in the shape of a normal C and is called the thoracic "kyphosis." So, it's -


In the past, according to medicine, if your head jutted out, causing you to develop a humped back, and your hips rolled under - you were just getting older or simply had bad posture. Today, medical science has uncovered a whole new meaning to losing or overly accentuating your curves. A shocking 2004 study in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society revealed that mortality could be PREDICTED by hyperkyphosis.
An elite group of medical scientists, Deborah M. Kado, MD, MS, Mei-Hua Huang, DrPH, Arun S. Karlamangla, MD, PhD, Elizabeth Barrett-Connor, MD+ and Gail A. Greendale, MD, found that as the curve in the middle back, the kyphosis, became greater than normal, death came sooner. Now, another groundbreaking study published in the medical journal "Spine" [Volume 30(21), November 1, 2005 pp. 2388-2392] revealed work done by Shimizu, Kentaro MD; Nakamura, Masaya MD; Nishikawa, Yuji MD; Hijikata, Sadahisa MD; Chiba, Kazuhiro MD; Toyama, Yoshiaki MD. This study once again shows the vital, urgent need for normal curves. They found that progressive kyphosis of the cervical spine (a loss or reversing of the neck's normal curvature) resulted in destruction of nerve fibres due to chronic compression of the spinal cord. The damage is associated with both continuous mechanical compression and vascular changes in the spinal cord.

Today's cutting edge chiropractors no longer merely treat spinal pain. Utilizing this kind of research, chiropractic technology has been developed over the last fifteen years to correct spinal curves both restoring the loss of the cervical C-curve and reducing the humping/hyperkyphosis of the mid-back C-curve. These studies tell us conclusively what top chiropractors have known for years, that there is no replacement for the need to correct and maintain your spine throughout life.
  • Forward Head Syndrome: Chin is jutted out in front of the chest
  • Rounded shoulders and/or humping of the upper back
  • Hips rolled forward (Loss of a butt)
  • One shoulder or hip higher than the other
  • One leg longer than the other
  • Tightness, reduced range of motion, or pain in the neck, shoulders, hips, upper, or lower back
For a Chiropractor in your area, please contact us and we will find someone for you or your friends and family members.

The Safety of Chiropractic Care

The Safety of Chiropractic Care By B.J. Hardick, D.C.

“Doctor, are chiropractic adjustments safe?”

This is one of the most common questions asked by people seeking or considering chiropractic care along with
  • “What are the risks?”
  • “Can I receive spinal adjustments without the chiropractor adjusting my neck?”
  • “Do chiropractic adjustments cause arthritis or even strokes?”
With media scrutiny over natural health procedures, specifically chiropractic and cervical adjustments, these are very important and serious questions, especially when one’s health is a priority. As a practicing chiropractor, I welcome the opportunity to address these questions. Chiropractic care is profoundly safe, and this article summarizes the current research, providing answers to these common questions and misconceptions.

Myths vs. Facts
In 1990, when I started working in the chiropractic profession, a common concern that patients had about chiropractic care was that “too many adjustments would cause arthritis.”  

Years later, science has affirmed what chiropractors have always seen and known to be true in clinical practice – that in fact chiropractic care is not only one of the most popular forms of care for people with arthritic conditions but one of the most effective.1,2

Unfortunately, for hundreds of years, health care practices have been permeated by folklore, sometimes known as “old wives tales.”  The trend continues today.  A 2010 study of over 1,000 board-certified American pediatricians found that over 75% of the doctors subscribe to at least one known health care myths.3 These include the myths that eating chocolate causes acne, listening to Mozart will make a baby smarter, and swimming within 30 minutes of eating is not safe.  Many doctors in this study were also found guilty of not knowing the expected protocols for treating burns, healing wounds, administering Aspirin to children, and safely dealing with seizures.

A review of the current literature indicates that frequent or extreme complications of chiropractic care should also be included in the list of the most common medical myths prevalent even in our medical offices.

Spinal Care vs. Chiropractic Care

The spinal column’s role in overall health cannot be undermined as it houses the brainstem, spinal cord, and central nerve system.  Thus, for optimal health the spinal column must be examined and cared for by a skilled doctor.

Specifically, the foundation of chiropractic care teaches that damage to the spine, and misalignments of the vertebrae (subluxations) create interference in the nerve system, which are therefore reduced and corrected through specific chiropractic adjustments.4,5

On that basis, chiropractic adjustment techniques have historically been rooted in precision and accuracy.  Although there are now many unique chiropractic techniques taught in professional schools and in continuing education, these techniques commonly focus on the evaluation and measurement of subluxation patterns in the spine and the specific protocols used to reduce the areas of misalignment.  In contrast, most other health care practices addressing the spine, never mind non-medical procedures attempted at home, are for the most part, generalized treatments of pain, global mobilizations of joints, and overall tractions of entire regions of the spinal column.

Receiving a specific chiropractic adjustment to reduce a subluxation is immensely different from receiving any form of “treatment” on the spine.  Admittedly, I did not understand this practice in my first 20 years of receiving chiropractic adjustments.  Until I attended chiropractic school and learned the techniques and analyses used in chiropractic science, I thought that chiropractic adjustments were all one-of-the-same.  I can understand how the general public might also construe this misconception – I did and I grew up in a chiropractic family.  Subluxations and adjustments are specific; the more extensive the analysis used by the chiropractor, the more precise the adjustment, and thus the better improvement in the patient’s health.

In my experience, the majority of the “chiropractic horror stories” shared in folklore, and even many of the cases cited by medical research, fall into one of two categories:

(a)    The case of a the patient receiving care without extensive and correct analysis
(b)   A person receiving spinal care incorrectly identified as “chiropractic care” administered by someone other than a licensed Doctor of Chiropractic

In fact, a 1995 report in the Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics revealed that many "manipulations," incorrectly attributed to chiropractors, had been rendered by non-chiropractic professionals including GPs, osteopaths, and physiotherapists, and even laypeople including a wife, a Kung-Fu practitioner, a blind masseur, and an Indian barber.6,7 Therefore before someone suggests they were hurt or injured by a “chiropractor,” it is imperative to learn more about their experience.  In all likelihood some level of scrutiny was overlooked – or they weren’t seeing a licensed chiropractor at all.

Modern chiropractors use advanced technological analyses such as X-ray, surface electromyography (sEMG), thermography, and digital postural analysis, along with traditional chiropractic methods of motion and static palpation, leg length analysis, and visual postural inspection to make a diagnosis and determine the appropriate adjustment.  

Naturally, to use layman’s terminology, if a patient presented to the chiropractor with a low left hip, and the chiropractor adjusted the left hip “even lower,” the patient would get worse.  For this reason, your Doctor of Chiropractic is not only highly trained but expected under every state and provincial law to thoroughly assess your spine and condition prior to making recommendations or giving adjustments.

What about stroke?

Since the 1990s, the most extreme fallacy about chiropractic care is that “adjustments of the cervical spine cause strokes.”  As a practitioner, I am pleased to observe greater inter-professional cooperation between physicians and chiropractors, but I am disappointed by the increasing number of patients who have consulted me following a discussion with their medical doctor and told to “not get their necks adjusted.”

A basic understanding of the origins of chiropractic care, and the critical function, anatomy, and physiology of the central nerve system demonstrates why the suggestion that patients should “not get their necks adjusted” is absurd.  While chiropractors are concerned with the reduction of nerve system stress caused by spinal subluxations throughout the entire spine, one must understand that all spinal nerves first pass through the upper cervical spine.  

Therefore, interference to the nerves passing from the brain through the spinal cord to any area of the body could occur either at the associated spinal segment where the peripheral nerve exits the spinal column, or at any place higher, including the upper cervical spine.  

Historically, Dr. B.J. Palmer, who developed the modern chiropractic profession, focused the majority of his research and efforts into the reduction of upper cervical spine subluxations, expressing that upper cervical subluxations were the foremost cause of disease and dysfunction compared to other subluxations in the spine.8 Years later, science continues to affirm the importance of upper cervical alignment.  It has been demonstrated that abnormal cervical alignment is a leading cause and an almost universal finding related to not only cervicogenic pain and headaches, but also the development of scoliosis9,10 and even sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).11.12,13 This awareness of the basic physiology of the nerve system is enough to understand the utmost importance of reducing subluxations in the cervical spine, above all other areas of the nerve system.

The “stroke hypothesis” stems from the theory that the irritation of the vertebral arteries, which pass through the cervical vertebrae, could lead to an ischemic stroke by causing accumulated plaque in the arteries to be dislodged.  As strokes may cause serious, permanent impairments in a person’s health, there has naturally been much interest and research in this topic.

Consider how plaque develops in the arterial system of the body.  Exposure to the known risks of poor diet, alcohol consumption, and smoking over a period of many years may cause molecular plaquing in the arteries, and it is true that when those molecules become dislodged, they can affect the brain, which is known as a stroke.  Unfortunately, your family doctor or your chiropractor can’t prevent this from happening – you would need immediate emergency medical attention in hospital to prevent this from occurring.

Warning signs that a stroke may be about to occur include upper back pain, neck pain, and headaches.  Naturally, people dealing with these symptoms may consult their chiropractor, hoping for a resolution of pain.  Many may also consult their MDs and/or other trusted health care providers.  Unfortunately, such pre-stroke symptoms as back pain, neck pain, and headaches may not explicitly appear to be the early stages of a vascular incident without the “red-flag” accompanying symptoms of blurred vision, dizziness, slurred speech, facial drooping, and lack of coordination.  Therefore, as it is not standard practice for chiropractors or medical physicians to refer every case of back pain or headaches to the emergency room, patients may receive chiropractic or medical intervention without knowing that a stroke is ensuing.

When is a chiropractor or medical doctor negligent?  If a patient visits the doctor’s office with neck pain and headaches while showing the classic signs of stroke (slurred speech, dizziness, poor coordination, etc.), the doctor is obligated to identify this and ensure that a stroke is not about to happen.  If, after examination, a doctor identifies that a stroke may be forthcoming, the doctor must see that the patient receives the necessary immediate medical attention.  Doctors who do not rule out the possibility of an imminent stroke or do not ensure necessary medical attention if a stroke is indeed forthcoming, would indeed be negligent – but this is very far from “causing” the person’s stroke, whether or not any treatment was rendered.

In fact, although a chiropractic adjustment would not slow down the incidence of the stroke, 2008 research shows that it would no more accelerate it than a visit to the medical doctor.  In an article published in SPINE, a multi-disciplinary team of researchers found that while strokes are very rare events in the general public, there was only an increased correlation between chiropractic visits and the occurrence of stroke, due to patients with headaches and neck pain seeking care before their stroke.14 Notably, the correlation of medical visits and strokes matched that of chiropractic visits and strokes; neither form of care was shown to increase the risk of stroke.  In either case, the unfortunate patient was headed for a vascular incident.  The occurrence of a stroke after a visit to the chiropractor (or the medical doctor) provides no association of cause, only correlation.15

Is your chiropractor required to warn you about the possibility of a stroke with a chiropractic adjustment?  Interestingly, Dr. Christopher Kent, who is an attorney, independent researcher, and president of the Foundation for Vertebral Subluxation, has expressed that “such informed consent must be based on appropriate information and since there is no scientific evidence that chiropractic adjustments or neck manipulations actually cause strokes, it is inappropriate to require a doctor to suggest that such a risk exists.”16 Nevertheless, most state and provincial laws require Doctors of Chiropractic to disclose a remote risk of stroke to their patients, for this is common practice for “material risks” even when the likelihood of occurrence is very small.17

Long-term Benefits of Chiropractic Care

Rather than study isolated reports of adverse incidences which may (or may not) occur within one visit to the chiropractor, it is more revealing to measure the long-term benefits of chiropractic care.  Ultimately, studies consistently demonstrate that a healthier spine relates to a healthier person.

Beyond symptomatic relief, a growing number of chiropractors place emphasis on corrective care and spinal hygiene, to maintain and promote the health of the spinal column and nerve system.

Without maintenance of spinal health, we now know through numerous studies that posture misalignment not only affects neurology but also the vascular system.  A 2004 study revealed that older men and women with hyperkyphotic postures have increased rates of death, specifically associated with increased atherosclerosis.18 With atherosclerosis increasing the incidence of an ischemic stroke, it is only logical for health-conscious individuals trying to prevent strokes to maintain healthy posture through chiropractic care.

Further, whereas a 2005 study showed that the reversal of the normal cervical curvature results in vascular changes in the spinal cord,19 the maintenance of this proper alignment should be of highest importance to those interested in the prevention of vascular incidents.
Statistically, the incidence rates favour those individuals receiving chiropractic care. 

In 1995, the Journal of Manual and Physiological Therapeutics published the risk of fatal stroke associated with chiropractic cervical adjustments.  Although no cause was shown in the article, the correlation is estimated to be 1 in 400,000 or 0.00025%.20 Newer studies suggest the risk may be as low as 1 in 6 million, 0.00002%.21 Notably, the National Center for Health Statistics indicates the mortality rate from stroke in the general population is more than twice the rate of the most conservative estimates correlating chiropractic.  The risk in the general population is 1 in 175,000 or 0.00057%.22

Not only is the risk of death from stroke after a cervical adjustment substantially less than the risk of fatal stroke in the general population, other long-term studies of chiropractic patients have shown:
  • Improved lung capacity, athletic ability, and vision23
  • Better functional capacity, and reduced relapse of prior disability24
  • Better overall health and greater activity levels25
  • Enhanced DNA repair and enzyme activity; reduced impact of oxidative stress26
  • Fewer hospital visits, reduced pharmaceutical costs, and medical expenditures27
  • Improvement in health, wellness, and quality of life28,29
The Final Verdict: Malpractice Claims
Lastly, as it is always possible that research could be slanted based on who was conducting it, perhaps the best measures of safety are the malpractice insurance costs for chiropractors and the actual frequency and success of claims filed against them.  No one pays closer attention to injury statistics than Malpractice Insurance carriers.

According to the Canadian Medical Protective Association, annual malpractice rates for Ontario medical doctors range from $1,572 for the family physician and $7,332 for the neurologist, to $44,520 for the Obstetrician.30 By comparison, the Canadian Chiropractic Protective Association’s standard rate for chiropractic malpractice insurance is less than $1,300 per year.  Notably, the first-year doctor of chiropractic is extended a new member discount of approximately 50% (as opposed to an increased premium), not reflecting any greater risk for a patient seeing a doctor with less experience.31

American rates reflect the inter-professional differences to an even greater degree.  Whereas the U.S. physician could pay $25,000 to $50,000 per year for malpractice coverage, U.S. chiropractors pay annual rates less than $5,000.32,33 The chiropractic profession has a well-established record of safety and efficacy, and the chiropractor’s malpractice insurance rates remain among the lowest across health professions.34 The varying rates are directly related to the risk involved in the doctors’ procedures, the claims filed against them, and the likelihood of future lawsuits.35

Although they are sensationalized in the media when they do occur, claims against chiropractors are very rare.  Your chiropractor’s office consistently proves itself to be one of the safest health care facilities you can choose for your family.

Moving Forward

Unquestionably, there have been decades of misinterpretations, and unfortunately chiropractic myths have been passed down through generations.  Certainly, professional bias has also played a role in the public’s misunderstanding of the safety and efficacy of chiropractic care.  (The U.S. Court of Appeals determined in 1990 that the American Medical Association had engaged in a “lengthy, systematic, successful and unlawful boycott” designed to restrict cooperation between medical doctors and doctors of chiropractic.36)  Fortunately, we are long past that day.  What you would hope to find in the 21st century are cooperative teams of health care professionals working together for your benefit.

My personal recommendation is to seek a chiropractor who not only uses current technology and techniques to analyze and render care to his or her patients, but also is willing to engage in dialogue with your other health care providers.  I recommend the same when choosing an M.D.

With this better understanding of chiropractic myths and the benefits of maintaining a healthy spine, I trust that you can comfortably move forward, integrating chiropractic care into your wellness lifestyle.

1 Rao JK, Mihaliak K, Kroenke K, Bradley J, Tierney WM, Weinberger M. Use of complementary therapies for arthritis among patients of rheumatologists. Ann Intern Med 1999;131:409-416.
2 Chiropractic for arthritis - new research shows wide usage and satisfactionDynamic Chiropractic November 1, 1999;17(23)., 
3 Tobin AM. Do pediatricians subscribe to old wives’ tales? Some do, U.S. survey suggests. The Canadian Press; May 3, 2010.
4 Association of chiropractic colleges, bylaws, chiropractic paradigm and chiropractic scope of practice. July 1996. 
5 The Chiropractic Paradigm. The Journal of Chiropractic Education 2001:15;2. 
6 Myth of chiropractic-caused strokes debunked by medical researchers.; August 2, 2006.
7 Terrett AGJ. Misuse of the literature by medical authors in discussing spinal manipulative therapy injury. JMPT 1995;18:203.
8 Palmer BJ. The subluxation specific, the adjustment specific. Chicago: Palmer School of Chiropractic 1934; 18:67.
9 Spinal canal capacity in simulated displacements of the atlantoaxial segment: a skeletal study. JBJS 1998;80(6):1073-1078.
10 Morningstar, Stitzel. The relationship between cervical kyphosis and idiopathic scoliosis. JVSR October 13, 2008:1-4.
11 Gilles FH, Bina M, Sotrel A.  Infantile atlantooccipital instability, the potential danger of extreme extension.  Am J Dis Child 1979;133(1):30-37.
12 Scheier M et al, Atlanto-occipital hypermobility in sudden infant death syndrome.  Today’s Chiropractic 1990;19(1):36-40.
13 Eriksen K. Upper cervical subluxation complex: a review of the chiropractic and medical literature. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 2004:53-56.
14 Cassidy JD et al. Risk of vertebrobasilar stroke and chiropractic care. SPINE;33(4S):S176–S183.
15 Kent C. Adjustments, strokes, and errors in medicine. The Chiropractic Journal July 2000., 
16 No evidence that chiropractic causes stroke according to foundation for vertebral subluxation. January 07, 2010. 
17 Chapman-Smith D. Informed consent. The Chiropractic Report July 2006;20(4).
18 Kado DM et al. Hyperkyphotic posture predicts mortality in older community-dwelling men and women: a prospective study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society October 2004;52(10):1662
19 Spine Novemeber 1, 2005;30(21):2388-2392.
20 Debbs V, Lauretti WJ. A risk assessment of cervical manipulation vs. VSAIDS for the treatment of neck pain. JMPT 1995;18:530.
21 Haldeman S, Carey P et al. Arterial dissections following cervical manipulation: the chiropractic experience, CMAJ 2001;165(7):905-906.
22 Kent C. Do cervical adjustments cause strokes.
23Masarsky C. The long-term benefits of chiropractic care.  Dynamic Chiropractic September 9, 2009;27(19). 
24JMPT October 2004;27:509.
25Coulter ID, Hurwitz EL, Aronow HU, Cassata DM, Beck JC. Chiropractic patients in a comprehensive home-based geriatric assessment, follow-up and health romotion program. Topics in Clinical Chiropractic 1996;3(2):46-55.
26 Clayton J. Campbell et al. Surrogate indication of DNA repair in serum after long term chiropractic intervention – a retrospective study. J Vertebral Subluxation Res. February 18, 2005.
27 Rupert R et al. Maintenance care: health promotion services administered to US chiropractic patients aged 65 and older, Part II., JMPT January 2000;23(1):10-19. 
28Blanks RH, Schuster TL, Dobson M. A retrospective assessment of network care using a survey of self-rated health, wellness and quality of life. JVSR:1(4).
29 McCoy M. JVSR Research Update - 3/13/2006 - Chiropractic promotes health? what is the evidence?JVSR March 13, 2006. 
30Canadian Medical Protective Association. Fee Schedule for 2010. 
31 Canadian Chiropractic Protective Association, 2010 Fee Schedule
32 Turchin C.  Primary care providers: the chiropractic illusion. Dynamic Chiropractic June 17, 1994;12(13)
33Parker College of Chiropractic. 
34 Delaware chiropractic society, summary of studies on chiropractic efficacy, cost-effectiveness & patient satisfaction. - 
33 Martin ST. Canada keeps malpractice cost in check. St. Petersburg Times July 27, 2009.
36Statement of the American Chiropractic Association on the AMA scope of practice partnership. 1990. -