Thursday, March 29, 2012

Mercury in Vaccines: CDC and FDA are Guilty of Misconduct

The decades old firestorm debate over whether or not thimerosal in vaccines causes Autism got heated up last week when Jenny McCarthy made her accusation on the Oprah Winfrey Show. The U.S. Senate has just released a report after an 18-month long investigation of the FDA and CDC concerning thimerosal levels in pediatric vaccines and the rising rates of neurological disorders in U.S. children. Their verdict: the FDA is guilty of forcing parents to inoculate their children with hazardous amounts of poisonous mercury in the name of disease control.

Senator Enzi (R-Wyoming), Ranking Member of the Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions, concluded,

“Two allegations were sustained [and] one allegation was partially substantiated…[the] FDA inappropriately utilized Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines regarding the dangers of mercury in vaccines containing thimerosal.”

In short: the FDA underestimated the toxicity of thimerosal [mercury] in vaccines required by law to be administered to countless infants and children.

The Senate report also indicated that:
■The Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences screened “potential committee members for possible conflicts of interest,” then reviewed the evidence and found no link between mercury exposure from vaccines and autism.
■Government data was inaccessible to researchers seeking to prove thimerosal in vaccines is damaging to certain populations.
■Despite the decrease in mercury-laden vaccines for American children, vaccines manufactured and distributed to developing countries still contain thimerosal.

Parents with children suffering from neurological disorders such as autism, ADHD, and tourette syndrome (or other transient/chronic tic disorders) can find out if their child has been over exposed to thimerosal by getting a copy of their child’s immunization record. A good article to read on the subject is “CDC: Mercury in Vaccines Damaged Your Child. Or Not.” by David Kirby.

Kirby sums it up appropriately in his opening question:

“If you were informed that mercury in vaccines might double the risk of your son developing motor tics, increase his risk of “phonic tics” by nearly two-and-a-half times, and possibly cause speech, attention or behavioral problems in school, would you still allow him to be injected with the heavy metal — which, by the way, is 100 times more neurotoxic than that lead coating on his Chinese toys?”

Recommended books:

“Evidence of Harm: Mercury in Vaccines and the Autism Epidemic: A Medical Controversy”
“Why did autism grow from a relatively rare incidence of 1 in every 10,000 births in the 1980s to one in 500 in the late 1990s? Why did it continue to increase to 1 in 250 in 2000 and then 1 in 166 today?” Why are rates of ADHD, ADD, speech delay, and other childhood disorders also rising, and why does 1 in every 6 American children have a developmental disorder or behavioral problem?” [Kirby].

“The Truth About Vaccines: How We Are Used as Guinea Pigs Without Knowing It”

“Richard Halversen [U.K.] spent five years researching and writing this alarming study of vaccines: do they work, do we know enough about them, are they safe, what are the risks, are there ways of making vaccines safer? He investigates what patients and doctors alike are not being told. This book is written “to inform parents, honestly, and without bias, so that they can form their own decisions.” [review]

“What Your Doctor May Not Tell You About Children’s Vaccinations”

“We may be overvaccinating our children today. Once considered a godsend, vaccines are now felt by some to be associated with dramatic increases in brain and autoimmune diseases such as autism, asthma, diabetes, learning disabilities, and ADHD”. Here is a vital, down-to-earth guide that will tell you which vaccines may be risky and what to consider to help safely vaccinate your children” [Cave].

The debate is raging, but for those parents with children suffering ill effects of vaccinations, this news is far from comforting. For those seeking to fully understand the role thimerosal or other anticellular ingredients may have had on their child’s disability, their first task is to determine what kind of exposure there has been. The shot records from your pediatrician’s office should include the manufacturer and lot number. Those with healthy children seeking to avoid thimerosal should check out Safe Minds. They have a compiled list of current U.S. vaccines (as of 2004) with and without thimerosal for informed parents to use when visiting the pediatrician.

For those that cannot obtain complete records from their pediatrician, the AIRA (American Immunization Record Association) has a database that holds records of individuals immunized nationwide and is accessible to members only. It is also connected to state operated Vaccine registries such as Wisconsin’s Immunization Registry (WIR), or city-wide registries like the New York Citywide Immunization Registry (CIR), accessible to school personnel seeking to obtain individual records of students enrolled or other qualified people.

Above all else, parents need to be informed consumers when entering the doctor’s office on vaccination day. Never allow a doctor to vaccinate when your child is sick, and always conduct research about the particular vaccines prior to each visit. It is a good practice to vaccinate on a delayed schedule to assure that your child’s immune system has ample time to recover between doses. Keep diligent records and ask ahead of time which shots are used by your particular physician. If you do not like your options, shop around. Many municipalities have public health centers that offer shots as well. Be wary, too, if you already have a child that you suspect has been injured by vaccine toxicity when you make decisions about vaccinating siblings.

For more informative view this convenient and concise PDF brochure about toxic components in vaccines from the Vaccine Information Service.

For more information about autism news, views and opinions to empower parents with the truth to help their children suffering from autism heal visit Generation Rescue.

Friday, March 16, 2012



I had just arrived at the cafĂ© of my favorite bookstore on a rainy Saturday morning. I was armed with a briefcase full of work and was looking forward to a couple of hours of light work and some recreational reading. I was only a couple of pages into the latest issue of Scientific America, when I noticed her out of the corner of my eye. She appeared to be in her late 40’s and was carrying a large stack of the local city newspaper. She also seemed to be staring at me as if she knew me. I looked up as she approached my table. “Excuse me, is your name Keith”? She asked. I replied yes. She held out her hand—I’m Ellen Farber, we met about five years ago…….I was in an auto accident and was required to attend a health class at the Chiropractor’s office….you were the guest speaker at that class.. I struggled to remember the woman, but had no recollection of her. “Ellen, I apologize, I do a lot of lectures each year and I meet a lot of people. She interrupted me and said…”I have a son named Eric”. Eric…the light bulb in my brain went on and I immediately remembered this woman and her son. Eric had accompanied his mother to the class. He was small and frail. I estimated him to be 9-10 years old, but he was actually 13. He fidgeted throughout the entire class. I remembered talking with his mother after the class and she cited just a partial list of his health history including allergies, asthma, ADD, ear infections, sinus infections, digestive disorders, chronic colds, the list seemed endless. I was certain that he has a number of spinal subluxations, and I remember telling his mother that he was certainly a candidate for chiropractic care. “Ellen, I do remember you and your son Eric, how is he doing” She stared at me for several seconds. I could not tell if she was suppressing a smile or a frown. “Well, I certainly remember you Keith” she said. “There I was, a single mother working two jobs to make ends meet, I had just been in an auto accident and did not have a vehicle, I was already paying all kinds of money for Eric’s medical treatment and you wanted me to spend additional money and time on Chiropractic for him. I was really angry with you that evening.” Then, just ever so slightly she smiled and said “After we talked that night, I did sign up Eric for a Chiropractic exam and I went ahead and committed to the adjustment schedule that the doctor recommended” She paused again. “So how is Eric doing,” I asked, She took the top newspaper from the stack and opened it up to the sports page and laid it down in front of me. The top story showed a picture of a high school football player catching a touchdown pass. The headline read FARBER SELECTED TO FIRST TEAM ALL STATE. It was the same Eric, only instead of being a small, frail teenager; he was a 5’11” 185lb muscular athlete. I looked back at his mother. She said “Eric was never the same after he began chiropractic care. We saw the change in his health immediately, not only did he physically improve, but his attitude changed along with his grades, in fact he will graduate in the top five in his class and he has both athletic and academic scholarships from over 25 universities” she said proudly. She reached out and touched my shoulder “Thank you Keith” and she turned and walked away. There are literally hundreds of thousands…maybe millions of children like just Eric out in the world. They and their parents are waiting to hear the Chiropractic story and are waiting to see their entire lives change.

Keith Wassung

Thursday, March 15, 2012

The Breastfed Baby

If you cannot read the fine print here, the poster indicates that breastfed babies have been shown to have greater immunity, visual acuity, higher IQs, reduced chances of getting diabetes, less need for orthodontics, fewer ear infections, are less likely to need tonsilectomies, get less allergic eczema, experience less juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, less constipation, fewer UTIs, less acute appendicitis, less diarrhea and gastrointestinal infections, lower cholesterol as adults, lower heart rates in general, and fewer and less severe upper respiratory infections. I do not have the original source material for this particular poster, but the evidence presented is consistent with other sources and studies I've seen in the past about the protective power of breastfeeding your children.

Seizure, Ataxia, Fatigue, Strabismus and Migraine Resolved


Seizure, Ataxia, Fatigue, Strabismus and Migraine Resolved by Precise Realignment of the First Cervical Vertebra: A Case Report

Roy Sweat DC, BCAO Bio & Tyson Pottenger DC Bio

Journal of Upper Cervical Chiropractic Research ~ Issue 1 ~ March 12, 2012 ~ Pages 20-26

Objective: To analyze a case which appears to support chiropractic success in treating neurovascular symptoms through adjustment of the first cervical vertebrae.

Clinical Features: The patient was a 75 year old female presenting with gait ataxia, strabismus, fatigue, blood pressure fluctuations, seizures of two weeks duration, and history of concussion with similar symptoms. Previous medical diagnosis and care had been unrewarding.

Intervention and Outcomes: The patient presented to an Atlas Orthogonal chiropractic clinic where she was examined and her atlas vertebra adjusted per the SCALE method. The patient’s symptoms were quickly and painlessly reduced and/or resolved.

Conclusion: Results suggest that Atlas Orthogonal care may be responsible for the reduction and elimination of neurological symptoms in this patient. Removal of intracranial insufficiency due to chronic compression of the vertebral artery by misalignment of the first cervical vertebra is a possible explanation for the mechanism of management success. These results suggest that chiropractic care, specifically adjustment of the atlas vertebrae, may be a useful treatment for conditions with neurovascular symptomatology.

Key Words: seizure, ataxia, fatigue, migraine, vertebral artery, chiropractic, atlas orthogonal, subluxation, manipulation, adjustment

Chiropractic Care of a Patient with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis


Chiropractic Care of a Patient with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

Jennifer James Padrta, BS, Chiropractic Intern  .  June 2002


This study examined the effects of chiropractic adjustments in a patient with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS).  The adjustments were performed manually in most cases, with the exception of the atlas adjustments performed by a mechanical spring loaded chiropractic adjusting device.  Further studies are needed to examine the long-term effects of chiropractic adjustments on patients with ALS.


Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is part of a group of motor neuron diseases with degeneration of the lower cranial nerves, corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts.  The onset is usually between 30-60 years of age and progresses at different rates.  Most cases are sporadic, even though there are some familial cases.  ALS is often referred to as “Lou Gerhig’s Disease.”  Lou Gerhig was a baseball player for the New York Yankee’s that died from the disease in 1941 at 38 years old. (1)  Lou Gerhig made the disease well known, although it was actually described by Charcot in 1874. (6)


ALS is usually characterized by a combination of upper and lower motor neuron lesion signs.  Fasciculations and muscle atrophy are noticeable, as well as brisk deep tendon reflexes are apparent with the upper motor lesion portion.  Sensory function is completely normal. (3) 

 Lower Motor Neuron and Upper Motor Neuron Signs in Four CNS Regions

Lower motor neuron signs
jaw, face,
neck, arm,
back, abdomen,
leg, foot
Upper motor neuron signs
pathologic spread of reflexes, clonus, etc.
clonic jaw
gag reflex
exaggerated snout reflex
pseudobulbar features
forced yawning
pathologic DTR's
spastic tone
clonic DTR's Hoffman reflex
pathologic DTR's
spastic tone

preserved reflex in weak wasted limb
loss of superficial abdominal reflexes
pathologic DTR's
spastic tone
clonic DTR's - extensor plantar response
pathologic DTR's
spastic tone

preserved reflex in weak wasted limb
*World Federation of Neurology
There is no single definitive diagnostic test for ALS. To diagnose ALS, it requires the presence of upper and lower motor neuron degeneration by clinical, electrophysiological or neuropathologic examination and the progression of the symptoms to other regions or within the same one.  To determine the diagnosis of ALS, there must be an absence of any other disease that might explain the upper and lower motor neuron degeneration. (10)

Recently, there has been interest in looking deeper into a phenomenon called “apoptosis” which means, programmed cell death.  Researchers are trying to uncover if apoptosis is responsible for the neurodegenerative processes in ALS, by checking for levels of certain oncoproteins and their possible link with a predisposition of apoptosis. (4)  No solid research has proven this theory, as of yet.

Research has recently shown an enterovirus in the motor neurons of the anterior horn cells of people with ALS. (5) There have been many studies theorizing the same point, but this is the first time it has been scientifically proven. Of course, not all ALS patients have an enterovirus in their brain tissue, so there is not one cause of ALS.  Some proposed underlying causes of ALS include genetic susceptibility, heavy metal exposure, environmental toxins (pesticides), head trauma, viral infections and autoimmunity. (6)

The prevailing cause of familial cases of ALS is a defective superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene on chromosome 21. The normal function of SOD1 is to limit the production of intracellular free radicals. The mechanism of the defect is not known, but it is theorized the defective enzyme has an unwanted neurotoxic property. (11)

Excessive amounts of the amino acid glutamate (glutamic acid) along with MSG, may also play a role in the progression of ALS. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) produces prostaglandins that cause astrocytes in the CNS to release glutamate. In turn, glutamate may induce the formation of free radicals. (8)

Dr. Alf Breig’s work on skull traction and cervical cord injury is another approach to the possible treatment of ALS.  Dr. Breig has written about how surgically setting the cervical spine in slight extension, thereby allowing slack in the pons cord tract, could successfully treat ALS and number of other neurogenic problems. (2, 15)
According to most references, there is no cure or treatment for ALS, as it is considered a fatal disease.  Most ALS patients die within 2-2 ½ years of their diagnosis.  The 5-year survival rate is only 20%.  (3)

In the late 1970’s, the New England Journal of Medicine published an account by Norman Cousins, about how he used humor to recover from ALS.  Mr. Cousins stated that 10 minutes of belly laughter produced an anesthetic effect lasting at least two hours.

Right up the same alley, a study by Martin & Lefcourt showed that heavy laughter increased levels of enkephalins and endorphins in the brain.  And yet, another study by Dillon, Minchoff, and Baker reports that finding something funny results in a significant increase in IgA antibodies.

At this point science has no concrete answers of how to treat ALS, so one approach may work for one person, but not the next. 


The patient is a 62 year-old male who, in 1992, began having muscle spasms in his left leg and left arm.  In 1994 he was diagnosed with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Muscle atrophy continued and included all limbs beginning in the hands, then to the upper arms and into the shoulder region. He has been wheelchair bound for the past five years. Current symptoms include dysarthria and dysphagia, acid reflux, fasciculations, and periodic spells of gagging or coughing after having swallowed food or drink. Edema is present in his hands, legs, and feet.

It is necessary to note that the patient suffered trauma at the age of 19 years, when he fell 30+ feet off of a railroad trestle and landed on his head, breaking both wrists and right elbow. 

He wears a BI-PAP breathing apparatus at night to ensure continued respiration. His lower extremity muscle strength is intact and can shuffle out of his wheelchair with assistance for short distances. Most of his time is spent on a computer using a specialized program which is operated by one knee, allowing him to open programs, write letters, and surf the web. His mind is completely intact.

The following medications are taken daily and prescribed by a medical doctor at an ALS facility:

Neurontin manufactured by Parke-Davis Pharmaceuticals, also known as gabapentin, is an anti-epileptic seizure medication. Neurontin is a glutamate blocker, but it has no apparent affect on ALS.  According to Parke-Davis in a press release, “The results of this longer, larger, higher dose study of gabapentin in ALS provides no evidence of effectiveness of this drug for patients with this disease." (7)

The patient has been taking Neurontin for approximately 4 years and states that he feels “disconnected and doesn’t feel good” when he does not take it.  Oddly enough, another research journal finds that Neurontin is used successfully with patients with chronic neuropathic pain used with diabetics, but it seems that ALS patients are finding relief with the Neurontin as well. (12)

Rilutek (Riluzole) is also a glutamate blocker and has been proven to be able to slow the progression of ALS and extend the survival of ALS patients. It is the first medication to have an effect on the progression of ALS and approved by the FDA. There is the possibility of liver injury, and patients should have lab tests performed as a baseline before beginning Rilutek and during the drug treatment period.

Celebrex is a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor. Inhibition of the COX-2 mechanism provides protection for spinal motor neurons in SOD1 mouse models. GI problems, kidney, and liver problems are potential concerns. (8)

Quinine is used widely for muscle cramps.
Prilosec is commonly used for acid reflux disease or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Prilosec is indicated for short-term treatment of active duodenal ulcers. Most patients heal within four weeks, but an additional four weeks may be necessary. (13) The patient has been taking Prilosec for much longer than 8 weeks.

Prozac is a commonly used anti-depressant. The patient states that it is difficult to have a quick mind and a body that won't comply.  He has been taking Prozac for 4 years.

Amitriptyline HCL is used as an anti-depressant, but the patient states that he takes it as an anti-inflammatory drug.

Ambien is a hypnotic and allows the patient to sleep when he has difficulties.

The patient introduced approximately 900mg of calcium lactate chelated with magnesium and noticed an immediate decrease in fasciculations to the point of almost non-existence.  He also began taking d-alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), betaine hydrochloride with pepsin, vitamin A, phenylalanine, glutamine, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) to help the body produce glutathione, coQ-10, essential fatty acids, ginseng, gingko biloba and creatine.

The patient entered the Life Chiropractic College West Health Center with a complaint regarding his speech due to ALS, but after receiving some musculoskeletal relief, complained of "butt pain" from being unable to ambulate on his own and being confined to his wheelchair. 

He had upper motor neuron lesions of the lower extremities and lower motor neuron lesions of the upper extremities.  The fasciculations were so extreme that getting a pulse and blood pressure readings were nearly impossible.  His muscle strength in the lower extremities had complete range of motion against gravity, either with some or all resistance.  The lower extremity reflexes were either average of hyperactive.  There was no evidence of contractility or joint motion in the upper extremities and either had no response or an average response unilaterally when performing reflex exam.

All cranial nerves appeared to be intact.  Heart, lung and abdominal exams all appeared normal.

The only sensory exam that was abnormal was differentiation of dull from sharp on face.

Motion palpation revealed taut and tender fibers and/or fixations at the occipital and atlas region on the right, bilaterally at T2-T7 and bilaterally at T10.

Cervical range of motion was decreased overall without pain.

All other tests were either within normal limits or were unable to be performed.

Radiographic studies concluded spondylosis from C2-C6, lower thoracic spine and entire lumbar spine with a transitional segment at L5 with accessory articulation on the right.  Chest films were taken which demonstrated a chronic degenerative cyst and other findings suggest a chronic lung disease, which may be associated with the history of ALS.


Conservative manual adjustments of the spine and its articulations were administered usually at one week interims and then extended to two week interims, as the patient had difficulty commuting such a distance when it was necessary to rely on others to drive him to the health center.

A persistent subluxation complex of the coccyx was apparent, possibly due to the time spent in the wheelchair.  Other subluxation complexes included T2, T8, T12/L1, sacrum and on occasion C1 was adjusted using a mechanical spring loaded chiropractic adjusting device.  Both shoulders were chronically subluxated anterior inferior, possibly due to the extreme muscle wasting in the upper extremities and chest.


The patient involved with this study did not follow all recommendations for home exercises and frequency of adjustments.  The distance between his home and the health center was excessive for is condition to be seen more than 1-2 times per month.

Upon a re-evaluation, the patient noticed that he has less pain when in a supine position.  Also noted was the cervical range of motion increased in all directions except for lateral flexion bilaterally.

Complaints changed, as he found relief for his left hip pain, low back pain and tail bone pain.  It appeared as though once a problematic area was relieved, he would notice another area that he hadn't noticed prior.

There were no other objective changes obtained, as many of the initial objective tests were unable to be performed during the physical exam.

Subjectively, the patient received some relief for periods of time.  Immediately after an adjustment, his speech was noticeably different to everyone in the room.  Musculoskeletal complaints varied due to multiple variables including sleep, activity, adjustment frequency and psychosocial attitude.



Recent  research findings suggest that a chiropractic adjustment  or SMT may produce hypoalgesic and sympathoexcitatory effects leading to the activation of the descending inhibitory pathways from the periaqueductal grey area of the midbrain. (14)  We know from basic neurology that the periaqueductal grey area has an analgesic effect when stimulated.

After reviewing some of Dr. Alf Breig's work, it is possible that chiropractic adjustments along with Chiropractic Biophysics care, could induce the amount of extension or cervical lordosis necessary to stop spinal cord tethering and allow some relief or even resolution of some of the symptoms that are common to ALS patients.

Chiropractors have long approached patients with a variety of conservative manual adjustments, dietary and lifestyle changes.  Since there are no absolute treatments for ALS that are efficient across the board, a large-scale study should be explored in regards to chiropractic care and the treatment of ALS patients.


I would like to thank Jerry Steele for his unrelenting support, both physically and mentally, by helping with movement of the patient on each visit.  Also, for bouncing ideas off me in regards to ALS and sharing ideas and research with me.  I would also like to thank Dr. Gregory Plaugher for showing me how to look for reliable research information, as well as the faculty at Life Chiropractic College West.


1.      McGuire V, Longstreth WT Jr, Nelson LM, Koepsell TD, Checkoway H, Morgan MS, van Belle G. Occupational exposures and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A population-based case-control study. American Journal of Epidemiology 1997 Jun 15;145(12):1076-88.

2.      Breig A.Chapter 6. Pathological stress in the pons-cord tissue tract and its alleviation by neurosurgical means. Clinical Neurosurgery 1973;20:85-94.

3.      Souza.  Differential Diagnosis for the Chiropractor: Second Edition, pg 402-3

4.      Neuropathologies and Applied Neurobiology Aug:27 (4):257-74

5.      Giraud P, Beaulieux F, Ono S, Shimizu N, Chazot G, Lina B. Detection of enteroviral sequences from frozen spinal cord samples of Japanese ALS patients. Neurology. 2001 Jun 26;56(12):1777-8.

6.      Rowland LP, Shneider NA. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. New England Journal of Medicine. 2001 May 31;344(22):1688-700.

7.      Miller, Roger G. Phase III double-blind, placebo-controlled study of gabapentin (Neurontin) in patients. ALS Meeting of the American Neurological Association in Seattle, Washington on October 13, 1999.

8.      Drachman, DB. and Rothstein, JD. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 protects motor neurons in an organotypic model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Annals of Neurology. 2000 Nov, 48(5): p.792-795.

9.      Oey PL, Vos PE, Wieneke GH, Wokke JH, Blankestijn PJ, Karemaker JM. Subtle involvement of the sympathetic nervous system in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Muscle Nerve 2002 Mar;25(3):402-8

10.  Subcommittee on Motor Neuron Diseases/Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis of the World Federation of Neurology Research Group on Neuromuscular Diseases and the El Escorial "Clinical limits of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis" workshop contributors. El Escorial World Federation of Neurology criteria for the diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Journal of the Neurological Sciences 1994 Jul;124: 96-107. 

11.  Mitsumoto, H. and Munsat, T, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Guide for Patients and Families: Second Edition. Pgs 37-45

12.  Backonja M, Beydoun A, Edwards KR, Schwartz SL, Fonseca V, Hes M, LaMoreaux L, Garofalo E. Gabapentin for the symptomatic treatment of painful neuropathy in patients with diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled trial, JAMA 1998 Dec 2;280(21):1831-6

13.  National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Summary Minutes, Subcommittee   on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing, Tampa FL, January 11-13, 1998.

14.  Sterling M, Jull G, Wright A. Cervical mobilisation: concurrent effects on pain, sympathetic nervous system activity and motor activity. Manual Therapy 2001 May;6(2):72-81

15.  Breig, A.  Overstretching of and circumscribed pathological tension in the spinal cord – a basic cause of symptoms in cord disorders. Journal of Biomechanics 1970 Vol 3, pg 7-9

Monday, March 12, 2012

FDA Warns of Memory Problems with Statins

FDA Warns of Memory Problems with Statins
February 28, 2012 - The People's Pharmacy

The FDA has just updated its warnings on cholesterol-lowering drugs known as statins. These include Altoprev (lovastatin extended-release), Crestor (rosuvastatin), Lescol (fluvastatin), Lipitor (atorvastatin), Livalo (pitavastatin), Mevacor (lovastatin), Pravachol (pravastatin), and Zocor (simvastatin), as well as the combination products Advicor (lovastatin/niacin extended-release), Simcor (simvastatin/niacin extended-release) and Vytorin (simvastatin/ezetimibe).

For years, some patients have been complaining of memory difficulties while they are taking statin drugs to lower their cholesterol. Many find that their brain function returns to normal within a few days or weeks of stopping the drug, but some suffer for a very long time after discontinuation. The FDA has now acknowledged that these drugs can have cognitive side effects; the agency warns patients not to discontinue the drug on their own, but to consult with their health care professionals.

In addition, the feds are alerting patients taking a statin that their risk of type 2 diabetes (also known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes) is increased. The FDA believes that "the heart benefit of statins outweighs this small increased risk." Patients who are already struggling with blood sugar control, however, might well wish to discuss this with their health care providers. There are other ways to control cholesterol that do not raise blood sugar levels.

We have been receiving reports of serious muscle and memory problems linked to statins for decades. We have tried repeatedly to get the FDA's attention about these complications but have been met with a great deal of resistance....until now. For almost a decade we have been warning that statins might raise blood sugar in susceptible individuals. At long last the FDA seems to have caught up with the wisdom of our readers and visitors to this website. If you would like to read more about statin side effects check out this link.

For more information on these problems from statins, readers may want to check our book, Best Choices from The People's Pharmacy, in which we discuss a number of statin side effects and alternative ways to get cholesterol down. It is more relevant today than when we wrote it a few years ago. There is also a chapter on diabetes and non-drug ways that can help control blood sugar.

The FDA urges patients and physicians to report negative side effects of statin drugs to its MedWatch program. We also suggest that you report your experience with cognitive and memory problems below. If you have had more trouble controlling your blood sugar while taking a statin-type drug we would also like to hear from you.

Thursday, March 8, 2012

Vaccines Did Not Save Us – 2 Centuries of Official Statistics

Taken from child health safety's blog post. 

This is the data the drug industry do not want you to see. Here 2 centuries of UK, USA and Australian official death statistics show conclusively and scientifically modern medicine is not responsible for and played little part in substantially improved life expectancy and survival from disease in western economies.
The main advances in combating disease over 200 years have been better food and clean drinking water.  Improved sanitation, less overcrowded and better living conditions also contribute. This is also borne out in published peer reviewed research:
The Measles mortality graphs are enlightening [more below] and contradict the claims of Government health officials that vaccines have saved millions of lives.  It is an unscientific claim which the data show is untrue. Here you will also learn why vaccinations like mumps and rubella for children are medically unethical and can expose medical professionals to liability for criminal proceedings and civil damages for administering them.Measles Mortality England & Wales 1901 to 1999
[Click Graph to Enlarge - Opens In New Window]
The success of the City of Leicester, England was remarkable in reducing smallpox mortality substantially compared to the rest of England and other countries by abandoning vaccination between 1882 and 1908 [see more below].
This contrasts how the drug industry has turned each child in the world into a human pin-cushion profit centre.
And do vaccines cause autistic conditions?  If you read nothing else we strongly recommend you read this: PDF Download – Text of May 5th 2008 email from US HRSA to Sharyl Attkisson of CBS News].  In it the US Health Resources Services Administration [HRSA] state to CBS News reporter Sharyl Attkisson
We have compensated cases in which children exhibited an encephalopathy, or general brain disease. Encephalopathy may be accompanied by a medical progression of an array of symptoms including autistic behavior, autism, or seizures.
Despite all the lies and deceit by health official worldwide, the question “do vaccines cause autism” was answered after the Hannah  Poling story broke in the USA in February 2008 [see CHS article here].  Hannah developed an autistic condition after 9 vaccines administered the same day.  Under the media spotlight numerous US health officials and agencies conceded on broadcast US nationwide TV news from CBS and CNN. Full details with links to the original sources can be found in this CHS article:Vaccination Causes Autism – Say US Government & Merck’s Director of Vaccines. [Blue Text added 10 April 2011]
The financial markets have known for 20 years and more the pharmaceutical industry’s blockbuster patented drugs business model would eventualy fail  We now see the Bill Gates’ type business model emerging – almost everyone has Windows software on their PC – almost everyone will be vax’ed.  Gates quickly became a multi-billionaire.  With vastly more people to vaccinate than computers requiring software the lure of money is many times greater. All this whilst we watch as childhood prevalence of asthma, allergies, autism, diabetes and more have increased exponentially as the vaccines have been introduced.
Can “vaccinatable” diseases “return” despite vaccination?  Yes.  If you are too poorly nourished your body is likely to lack essential nutrients needed to maintain its immune system sufficiently to withstand disease.  This will happen regardless of how many vaccinations you have had.  This was experienced in Eastern Europe following the collapse of the old Soviet Bloc and the economic chaos which ensued, leaving many in great poverty.
For the same reason vaccines do not “work” and “save” lives in impoverished African and other third world economies.  The majority of third world child deaths still occur despite vaccination.  These children need proper food, clean water to drink and wash in and sanitation.  We give them vaccines instead.


Leicester & Smallpox

[ED Note 15 Oct 2009: As information like that here has become availablehealth officials are changing from scaremongering parents into vaccinating with claims their child could die.  Now they claim vaccinating reduces the numbers of cases of disease [ie. instead of deaths] and produce graphs of dramatic falls inreported cases (instead of deaths) when measles vaccine was introduced.
This is again misleading. A dramatic fall in the numbers of reported measles cases would be expectedDoctors substantially overdiagnose measles cases especially when they believe it is a possible diagnosis. Doctors were told the vaccine prevented children getting measles when introduced in the late 1960′s so after that time a substantial reduction in diagnoses would be expected.
Examples of recent overdiagnoses of measles when there are measles “scares” are proportionately up to 74 times (or  7400% overdiagnosed).  Figures and sources follow the next paragraph.
What health officials are also doing is relying on very old and unreliable data which ignores that measles has become progressively milder so the risks of long term injury have diminished – (and death is the most extreme form of long term injury – shown here by official data to have diminished rapidly and substantially over the past 100 years without the risks posed to children’s health by vaccines).
Measles Over Diagnosed – Up to 7400%
A.  Laboratory confirmed cases of measles, mumps, and rubella, England and Wales: October to December 2004
Notified: 474, Tested: 589†, Confirmed cases: 8
RATE OF OVERDIAGNOSIS:- 589/8 = proportionately 7400% or 74 times overdiagnosed
SOURCE: CDR Weekly, Volume 15 Number 12 Published: 24 March 2005
[Note from Source: "†Some oral fluid specimens were submitted early from suspected cases and may not have been subsequently notified, thus the proportion tested is artificially high for this quarter."]
B.  Total confirmed cases of measles and oral fluid IgM antibody tests in cases notified to ONS*: weeks 40-52/2005
Notified: 408, Tested: 343, Confirmed cases: 22
RATE OF OVERDIAGNOSIS:- 343/22 = proportionately 1560 % or 15.6 times overdiagnosed
SOURCE: CDR Weekly, Volume 16 Number 12 Published on: 23 March 2006

Scurvy Mortality Rates

To start you with something simple, Scurvy, Typhoid and Scarlet Fever are good examples to use as comparisons with “vaccinatable” diseases.
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UK Scurvy Mortality Rates 1901 to 1967 - Published: Roman Bystrianyk
Medicine and especially drugs and vaccines played no part in the fall in Scurvy death rates and the same can be seen for other diseases. Scurvy is a condition caused by a lack of vitamin C. Poor nutrition, particularly a lack of fresh fruit and vegetables, can result in Scurvy.  Mortality rates fell dramatically as living conditions improved.

Typhoid & Scarlet Fever – Mortality UK, USA & Australia

USA Compared to UK Typhoid Mortality 1901 to 1965 - Published: Roman Bystrianyk
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USA Compared to UK Scarlet Fever Mortality 1901 to 1965 - Published: Roman Bystrianyk
Australia Typhoid Mortality Rates 1880 to 1970
Australia Typhoid Mortality Rates 1880 to 1970
[SOURCE: Data - Official Year Books of the Commonwealth of Australia, as reproduced in Greg Beattie's book "Vaccination A Parent's Dilemma" - Downloadable Now]
Australia Diphtheria Mortality Rates 1880 to 1970
Australia Scarlet Fever Mortality Rates 1880 to 1970
[SOURCE: Data - Official Year Books of the Commonwealth of Australia, as reproduced in Greg Beattie's book "Vaccination A Parent's Dilemma" - Downloadable Now]


By 2007 the chance of anyone in England and Wales dying of measles if no one were vaccinated was less than 1 in 55 million. The chance of being struck by lightning is 30 to 60 times higher: Tornado & Storm Research Organisation
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Measles Mortality England & Wales 1901 to 1999
Measles Mortality England & Wales 1901 to 1999 - Logarithmic Scale [By Clifford G. Miller - For Evidence in the Dr Jayne Donegan General Medical Council Hearings August 2007, Manchester, England
Note that what seem large fluctuations after MMR vaccination was introduced in 1988 are not so large and are a feature of plotting the graph on a logarithmic scale.  This can be seen in the following graph,  plotted on an analog scale.
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Measles Mortality England & Wales 1901 to 1999 - Analog Scale
Measles Mortality England & Wales 1901 to 1999 - Analog Scale - [By Clifford G. Miller - For Evidence in the Dr Jayne Donegan General Medical Council Hearings August 2007, Manchester, England
The graph below is from a peer refereed medical paper: Englehandt SF, Halsey NA, Eddins DL, Hinman AR. Measles mortality in the United States 1971-1975. Am J Public Health 1980;70:1166–1169.  The red dotted trendline has been added.  This shows US measles mortality was falling regardless of whether vaccination was used.  By 2010 overall measles mortality in the USA was to fall to around 1 in 25 million without vaccines.As the severity of measles declined, long term complications would also. Whilst people still caught measles it was not the dreaded disease we are told it is today.
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USA Measles Mortality 1912 to 1975 [Source: Measles mortality in the United States 1971-1975. Halsey et al, Am J Public Health 1980;70:1166–1169.
The seeming fall in reported ordinary [ie. non fatal] measles cases in the above Halsey graph after 1968 is misleading. Doctors are poor in accuracy of diagnosis and follow fashions.  Official UK records for 2006 show that when doctors are looking for a disease, they overdiagnose suspected measles cases varying by 10 times to 74 times higher than is confirmed by laboratory testing: [74 times overdiagnosed SOURCE: CDR Weekly, Volume 15 Number 12 Published: 24 March 2005], [10 times overdiagnosed,CDR Weekly, PHLS 12:26], [ 15.6 times overdiagnosed, SOURCE: CDR Weekly, Volume 16 Number 12 Published on: 23 March 2006]
Correspondingly, when vaccination was introduced, they will tend to follow the fashion of not diagnosing measles, where they believe it controlled by vaccination. This following of fashions has been seen in other areas, including Coroner diagnoses of causes of death.
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USA Measles Mortality Compared to UK 1901 to 1965 - Published: Roman Bystrianyk
Australia Measles Mortality Rates 1880 to 1970
Australia Measles Mortality Rates 1880 to 1970
[SOURCE: Data - Official Year Books of the Commonwealth of Australia, as reproduced in Greg Beattie's book "Vaccination A Parent's Dilemma" - Downloadable Now]

Mumps Mortality – England & Wales

It is not exaggeration but accurate to state that mumps vaccination takes the medical profession firmly into the territory of the criminal law and unethical medical treatment of children.
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Mumps Mortality England & Wales 1901 to 1999
Mumps Mortality England & Wales 1901 to 1999 [By Clifford G. Miller - For Evidence in the Dr Jayne Donegan General Medical Council Hearings August 2007, Manchester, England
Providing treatment to a patient that is not clinically needed and misleading patients as to the clinical need for a treatment so as to vitiate their consent can mean the administration of the treatment is a criminal offence:  Appleton v Garrett (1995) 34 BMLR 23.
According to The British Medical Association (‘BMA’) and The Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain (RPSGB) mumps vaccination is clinically inappropriate:-
“Since mumps and its complications are very rarely serious there is little indication for the routine use of mumps vaccine”:  British National Formulary (‘BNF’) 1985 and 1986
Freedom of Information documents show the UK’s Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation and Ministry of Defence agreed as early as 1974 that:-
there was no need to introduce routine vaccination against mumps” because “complications from the disease were rare” JCVI minutes 11 Dec 1974.
Doctors and nurses who fail to tell parents mumps vaccine in MMR is clinically unnecessary, of the exact risks of adverse reactions and then give the vaccine appear to be behaving unethically, potentially in contravention of the criminal law and liable to civil proceedings for damages.  They are also unable to explain the exact risks because data on adverse reactions are not being collected properly or at all, and there is evidence showing adverse reaction data are suppressed.
A consequence is that giving MMR vaccine to children cannot be justified on clinical or ethical grounds. And as there is insufficient clinical benefit to children to introduce mass mumps vaccination, it cannot be justified as a general public health measure.
And one consequence of this unnecessary measure is that we are now putting young male adults at risk of orchitis and sterility because they did not catch natural mumps harmlessly when children and because MMR vaccination is not effective in conferring full or lasting immunity across an entire population.
One effect of MMR vaccination has been to push mumps outbreaks into older age groups.  Mumps now circulates in colleges and universities:Mumps and the UK epidemic 2005, R K Gupta, J Best, E MacMahon BMJ  2005;330:1132-1135 (14 May).
1 in 4 males who has achieved puberty and has not achieved immunity to mumps runs the risk of orchitis.  Orchitis (usually unilateral) has been reported as a complication in 20-30% of clinical mumps cases in postpubertal males. Some testicular atrophy occurs in about 35% of cases of mumps orchitis: Mumps – Emedicine. This means one of the male testicles shrivels up.  Affected men can become sterile in one testicle.  This affects one in every nine males who catch mumps after puberty compared with none who catch it before puberty.  It is only because most men have two testicles and only one is affected that total sterility is rare.  Most men would find that little consolation.  Having a shrivelled testicle would carry psychological and practical consequences for any intimate physical relationship in adult life.  The message seems to be it is better for a child to catch mumps naturally before puberty.

Rubella Mortality, England and Wales

As with mumps, rubella vaccination again takes the medical profession into the territory of the criminal law and unethical treatment of children. A graph for rubella mortality is not included because death from rubella over the last century was so rare the figures are insufficient to plot a graph of any note.
Aside from a rash the adverse effects of rubella for children are minimal.  Vaccination against rubella is of no clinical benefit to a child particularly when compared to the risks of adverse vaccine reactions. If a pregnant woman catches rubella infection during the first three months of pregnancy and the child survives, this poses a risk to the unborn child of being born with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), involving multiple congenital abnormalities.
Prior to the introduction of rubella vaccine, the number of annual cases in the UK was small, around 50 per annum.  Additionally, 92% of rubella cases deliver normal healthy children: DANISH MEDICAL BULLETIN MARCH 1987 – WAVES Vol. 11 No. 4 p. 21 .This small risk can also be reduced either by making sure all women have caught rubella as children or by vaccinating those who have not prior to puberty.  This minimises the exposure of children to the vaccine and hence to unnecessary risks of adverse vaccine reactions.
In comparison birth defects from any other cause are much higher:
Birth defects affect about one in every 33 babies born in the United States each year. They are the leading cause of infant deaths, accounting for more than 20% of all infant deaths. Babies born with birth defects have a greater chance of illness and long term disability than babies without birth defects.“: Birth Defects US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention – accessed 11th May 2008
To see how egregious is the exaggeration of risk from rubella in order to scare parents into vaccinating their children, see the following:-


Does paying for healthcare bring you better health and a longer life?  No.  The following graphs show that in 1996, average life expectancy in the US was 18th of all countries, being 5 years less than Canada and behind the UK.  But Americans were paying per person US$1000 or over 1/3rd more than Canadians and nearly 2/3rds more than the British.  And if you then take a look at the graphs of mortality, what were Americans getting for their money?  Mortality rates were falling anyway, regardless and kept on falling.  Life expectancy increased as time went by, but again substantially due to overall improved living conditions.
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World Healthcare Costs ($) 1990 - Published: Roman Bystrianyk
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USA Life Expectancy by Age 1900 to 1998 - Published: Roman Bystrianyk


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USA Mortality by Age at Death 1900 to 1970 - Published: Roman Bystrianyk
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England & Wales Total Infant Mortality 1901 to 1999
England & Wales Total Infant Mortality 1901 to 1999



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USA Disease Mortality 1900 to 1965 Measles, Typhoid, Pertussis (Whooping Cough), Diphtheria, Scarlet Fever - Published: Roman Bystrianyk
The following is the same USA graph as just above, but with Influenza and Tuberculosis Deaths included.  And you can see that Influenza deaths were not prevented by a vaccine – because for most of the period covered, there was no vaccine available at all and when it became available, it was not freely available until the present day – when guess what – ‘flu mortality had already plummeted – and guess what else – it does not work particularly well either – in fact so badly it may well be best avoided.
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USA Disease Mortality 1900 to 1965 Measles, Typhoid, Pertussis (Whooping Cough), Diphtheria, Scarlet Fever, Influenza & Pneumonia, Tuberculosis - Published: Roman Bystrianyk
The following is the same graph as above but showing the full curve for influenza and pneumonia mortality.
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USA Disease Mortality 1900 to 1965 Measles, Typhoid, Pertussis (Whooping Cough), Diphtheria, Scarlet Fever, Influenza & Pneumonia, Tuberculosis - Published: Roman Bystrianyk
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UK Disease Mortality 1901 to 1965 Measles, Typhoid, Pertussis (Whooping Cough), Diphtheria, Scarlet Fever - Published: Roman Bystrianyk


England, USA & Australia

Here we see Diphtheria mortality falling all by itself.  In the UK, although the vaccine was introduced in 1940, most children particularly under 5 did not get it  and there was a large catch-up campaign in 1945-6.  The under 5 age group are the most at risk from infectious disease.  But can you see any difference in the rate of fall of mortality from Diphtheria after 1946 in the UK?  No?  Surprised? The “success” of diphtheria vaccine is another unscientific quasi religious faith of the medical professions which is not backed up by scientific data.
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USA Compared to UK Diphtheria Mortality 1901 to 1965 - Published: Roman Bystrianyk
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England & Wales Diphtheria Mortality 1901 to 1999
England & Wales Diphtheria Mortality 1901 to 1999 - [By Clifford G. Miller - For Evidence in the Dr Jayne Donegan General Medical Council Hearings August 2007, Manchester, England
Australia Diphtheria Mortality Rates 1880 to 1970
Australia Diphtheria Mortality Rates 1880 to 1970
[SOURCE: Data - Official Year Books of the Commonwealth of Australia, as reproduced in Greg Beattie's book "Vaccination A Parent's Dilemma" - Downloadable Now]
Diphtheria vaccine was introduced to the UK in 1940.  It is certain beyond doubt that diptheria vaccine played no part in the sudden fall in diphtheria mortality from 1941 to 1946 [see graph] .  The records show most children went unvaccinated until after the major fall.  The graph of total infant mortality as a benchmark also shows the vaccine made no discernible difference to diphtheria mortality at any other time.
By the end of 1941:-
about 36 percent of school age children had been immunised but only about 19 percent of the younger childrenBritish Journal of Nursing October 1948 p121.
It was not until 1946-7 – after the substantial fall in diphtheria mortality had taken place that a major effort was made to vaccinate the children who had been missed. 969,000 children under 5 were “immunised”: British Journal of Nursing October 1948 p121With an annual birth rate in the region of 200,000 that represented most of the children born during 1941 to 1946. So diphtheria vaccination could not have been responsible for the fall.
But we can identify what was most likely responsible. We can see the impact of the social health and welfare reforms of 1944, 1947 and 1948.  Free school milk provided, among other nourishment, vitamin A to help children’s immune systems fight disease.  It is vitamin A which the World Health Organisation is keen to provide to third world children now for the same reason.
It can be seen that the benchmark decline in general infant mortality (ie. all causes of infant death) closely follows the decline in diphtheria mortality in the general population.  This again demonstrates that the decline in diphtheria mortality was part of a general trend and had little or nothing to do with the introduction of vaccination.


Whooping Cough or Pertussis – again, the mortality rates fell substantially well before any vaccines were introduced.  The contribution, if any, to overall health has been neglible. The decline in general infant mortality closely follows the decline in Whooping Cough mortality in the general population.  This again demonstrates that the decline in Whooping Cough mortality was part of a general trend and had little or nothing to do with the introduction of vaccination:-
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USA Compared to UK Whooping Couch (Pertussis) Mortality 1901 to 1965 - Published: Roman Bystrianyk
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UK Whooping Couch (Pertussis) Mortality 1838 to 1978 - Published: Roman Bystrianyk
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England & Wales Whooping Cough (Pertussis) Mortality 1901 to 1999
England & Wales Whooping Cough (Pertussis) Mortality 1901 to 1999 [By Clifford G. Miller - For Evidence in the Dr Jayne Donegan General Medical Council Hearings August 2007, Manchester, England
“]Australian Whooping Cough (Pertussis) Mortality 1880-1970
Australian Whooping Cough (Pertussis) Mortality 1880-1970 - [SOURCE: Data - Official Year Books of the Commonwealth of Australia, as reproduced in Greg Beattie's book "Vaccination A Parent's Dilemma" - Downloadable Now

Tetanus Mortality – England & Wales 1901 to 1999

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Tetanus Mortality England & Wales 1901 to 1999
Tetanus Mortality England & Wales 1901 to 1999 [By Clifford G. Miller - For Evidence in the Dr Jayne Donegan General Medical Council Hearings August 2007, Manchester, England
Tetanus Mortality England & Wales 1901 to 1999
This graph demonstrates that the administration of tetanus vaccine is likely to be pointless and puts children especially at risk of adverse reactions to the vaccines.
There is only one respect in which modern medicine could have had an indirect effect.  This came with the social reforms of 1947-48 which saw the introduction of the National Health Service.  Coupled with this was the start of the reduction in numbers of farm workers with the start of increased mechanisation and industrial scale farming in Britain after the 1939-1945 World War.  The numbers of farm labour fell by half post war and the increase in mechanisation also reduced the chances of the injuries which were likely to result in tetanus
Fewer agricultural workers coupled with better access to healthcare would result in better treatment of wounds.  Tetanus thrives in deep wounds which are not properly cleansed.  So by having fewer agricultural workers and better wound care could reduce the incidence of tetanus cases.  So if the reduction in tetanus mortality in the 1950s is anything other than part of the continuing decline with better standards of living, those two reasons are the most likely explanations.


In the graphs notice the large numbers of deaths caused by the smallpox vaccine itself.  By 1901 in the UK, more people died from the smallpox vaccination than from smallpox itself.  The severity of the disease dimished with improved living standards and was not vanquished by vaccination, as the medical “consensus” view tells us. Any vaccine which takes 100 years to “work” is not.  On any scientific analysis of the history and data, crediting smallpox vaccine for the decline in smallpox appears misplaced.
When during 1880-1908 the City of Leicester in England stopped vaccination compared to the rest of the UK and elsewhere, its survival rates soared and smallpox death rates plummetted [see table below].  Leicester’s approach also cost far less.
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UK Deaths Caused by Smallpox Vaccination 1875 to 1922 - Published: Roman Bystrianyk
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UK Deaths from Smallpox Vaccine Compared To Smallpox Mortality 1906 to 1922 - Published: Roman Bystrianyk

Extracts from “LEICESTER: Sanitation versus Vaccination” By J.T. Biggs J.P.

[Download Entire Book as .pdf 43 Mb  - Or Read Online]
SMALLPOX FATALITY RATES, cases in vaccinated and re-vaccinated populations compared with “unprotected” Leicester – 1860 to 1908.
Small-Pox.  Cases
Small-Pox. Deaths.
Fatality-rate per cent. of Cases
British Army (United Kingdom)
British Army (India)
British Army (Colonies)
Royal Navy
Grand Totals and case fatality rate per cent, over all
Leicester (since giving up vaccination)
Biggs said “In this comparison, I have given the numbers of revaccinated cases, and deaths, and each fatality-rate separately and together, so that they may be compared either way with Leicester. In pro-vaccinist language, may I ask, if the excessive small-pox fatality of Japan, of the British Army, and of the Royal Navy, are not due to vaccination and revaccination, to what are they due? It would afford an interesting psychical study were we able to know to what heights of eloquent glorification Sir George Buchanan would have soared with a corresponding result—but on the opposite side.
Small-Pox Epidemics, Cost, and Fatality Rates Compared
Vaccinal Condition
Small-Pox Cases
Small-Pox Deaths
Fatality-rate Per Cent
Cost of Epidemic
London 1900-02
Well Vaccinated
Glasgow 1900-02
Well Vaccinated
£ 150,000
Sheffield 1887-88
Well Vaccinated
Leicester 1892-94
Practically Unvaccinated
Leicester 1902-04Practically Unvaccinated731304.10£1,602
City of Leicester Smallpox Deaths 1880-1908
City of Leicester Smallpox Deaths 1880-1908
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UK Smallpox Mortality Rates Compared to Scarlet Fever 1838 to 1890 - Published: Roman Bystrianyk
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Sweden Smallpox Mortality Rates 1821 to 1852 - Published: Roman Bystrianyk